Motorway Download [REPACK]
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Motorway Bold (Temporary) 2015 K-Type www.k-type.com K-Type MOTORWAY is a full typeface based on the limited character set created by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert for route numbers on UK motorway signs.
Motorway Regular 2015 K-Type www.k-type.com K-Type MOTORWAY is a full typeface based on the limited character set created by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert for route numbers on UK motorway signs.
We only need European countries but the Eurostat shapefile has no info on continents. Luckily, there is a column on ISO2 country codes so we just need to download a list of European countries with ISO2 codes and filter the shapefile. Because OSM data includes Turkey and Cyprus we also consider the ISO2 codes of these two countries.
In the following chunk, we open the Eurostat world shapefile, correct the ISO2 country codes for Greece and the United Kingdom (for some reason, these were incorrect) and filter European countries plus Cyprus and Turkey. Now we have a national map of Europe as a basis for our motorway map!
The main sources of non-exhaust vehicular emissions that contribute to road dust are tire, brake and clutch wear, road surface wear, and other vehicle and road component degradation. This study is an attempt to identify and investigate heavy metals in urban and motorway road dusts as well as in dust from brake linings and tires. Road dust was collected from sections of the A-4 motorway in Poland, which is part of European route E40, and from urban roads in Katowice, Poland. Dust from a relatively unpolluted mountain road was collected and examined as a control sample. Selected metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, Sr, Ba, Ti, and Pd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy on a range of size-fractionated road dust and brake lining dust (250 μm). The compositions of brake lining and tire dust were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. To estimate the degree of potential environmental risk of non-exhaust emissions, comparison with the geochemical background and the calculations of geo-accumulation indices were performed. The finest fractions of urban and motorway dusts were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, especially with Ti, Cu, and Cr, which are well-recognized key tracers of non-exhaust brake wear. Urban dust was, however, more contaminated than motorway dust. It was therefore concluded that brake lining and tire wear strongly contributed to the contamination of road dust.
Asphalt and sandpaper-like effects are significant sources of Ni and As in road dust (Ozaki et al. 2004). Gadd and Kennedy (2000) have reported that the concentrations of Ni and Zn in road bitumen were higher than in raw bitumen. This suggests that heavy metal concentrations in road dust are significantly affected by vehicle operation and road abrasion. It should be noted that more tire abrasion occurs when a vehicle drives on a concrete motorway compared with an asphalt surface (Duong and Lee 2011). Driving on concrete surfaces also requires higher energy use, which results in higher fuel consumption. Higher hydrocarbon concentrations and lower heavy metal concentrations were reported from driving on asphalt. Heavy metal concentrations in road dust strongly depend on vehicle speed. As such, the highest concentrations have been recorded on motorways. Higher speeds also result in greater tire wear and increased fuel combustion. Duong and Lee (2011) compared dust from roads, where the average speed ranged from 80 to 90 km/h with roads where the average speed ranged from 70 to 80 km/h. They have found that higher concentrations of heavy metals occurred in dust from roads that had higher average driving speeds. According to Duong and Lee (2011), the concentrations of heavy metals in road dust vary significantly depending on traffic and road features such as roundabouts, motorway roads, and traffic lights. The concentrations of metals in road dust from motorways are approximately twice those found near roundabouts and downtown areas (Duong and Lee 2011). The influence of different pavement surfaces on environmental heavy metal pollution has recently been investigated by Murphy et al. (2015).
The main objective of this study was to quantify heavy metal concentrations within different road dust size fractions. Research involved studying the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of urban and motorway road dusts and characterized brake lining and tire dust. Analyses of dust from wearable parts of vehicle were performed to determine the influence of these non-exhaust emission sources on the concentrations of heavy metals in road dust. Comparisons of urban and motorway dusts with mountain road dust were performed, and the geo-accumulation index (I geo) was calculated to evaluate the level of road dust contamination.
Road dust was collected from urban roads in Katowice, Poland, on sections of the A-4 Katowice-Chorzów Batory motorway and from a relatively unpolluted mountain area in the Krowiarki Pass (Żywiecki Beskid, Poland). The sampling areas are presented in Fig. 1. The A-4 motorway is part of European route E40, which connects to France via Belgium, Germany, Poland, the Ukraine, and Russia to the border of China.
The results from motorway and urban dusts were compared with mountain road dust, which was considered unpolluted control sample. Figures 4 and 5 present results from the qualitative chemical analysis of motorway and urban road dusts using SEM-EDS.
The concentrations of heavy metals in bulk samples of each of the examined road dust types are presented in Table 2. Urban and motorway road dust samples were highly contaminated with all of the investigated metals when compared with dust collected from the unpolluted mountain region. Urban road dust was significantly more contaminated with Zn, Pb, and Cu than motorway dust.
Both types of road dust were especially contaminated with Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, Ba, and Ti. On average, the dust collected from the urban area was 30 % more contaminated with Zn, Cu, Pb, and Fe than motorway dust. Motorway dust revealed Ti concentrations to be three times higher than those in urban dust. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Sr, Ba, Se, and Cd in both road dust types were comparable and were significantly elevated when compared with the concentrations found in mountain road dust. Contamination with Zn can be attributed to the wear and tear of tires, because ZnO and ZnS are added to activate vulcanization in the tire tread. Cu contamination could originate from the frictional materials used in the brake system. Lead is an important component of bearing alloys, but significant concentrations of this metal in road dust could have also originated from the Silesia industrial region, which was located nearby. Until recently, lead was also used as a material for wheel balancing weights, but it has been replaced by zinc weights. It should be, however, noted that Pb is very persistent element and its elevated concentration in urban dust could also be a consequence of common use of PbO4 as gasoline additive in Poland up to March 2005. Contamination of road dust with chromium is the result of adding it as a main component to alloys used to produce wrist pins and connecting rods. An elevated amount of Ba in urban dust could be a consequence of using BaSO4 for improving wear resistance.
Bulk samples and the finest fractions of urban and motorway dusts (up to 56 μm) were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, in particular with Ti, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, and Ba. Since Ti, Cu, and Cr are well-recognized key tracers of non-exhaust brake wear emissions, high concentrations of these metals confirm that brake wear highly contributes to road dust contamination. Elevated concentration of Ti in both motorway and urban road dusts is undoubtedly of anthropogenic origin, and it might be linked to the use of alkali metal titanates as inorganic fillers for the purpose of stabilizing friction coefficient. Furthermore, contamination of road dust with copper is probably due to using it as a component of reinforcing fiber, which in form of chips or granules, combined with Zn, improves toughness and strength of brake pads.
On the mountain road, where traffic is significantly less intensive, vehicles had practically no influence on the level of dust contamination. Confirming this, the concentration of Pd, which comes from catalytic converters in vehicles, in mountain road dust was much lower in the finest fraction, when compared with motorway and urban dusts. Considering the geochemical background levels and I geo, it can be assumed that Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cu, which were detected in both types of road dust, pose a significant hazard to the environment.
Monitoring of the fine fraction of road dust should be intensified since this fraction easily enters the environment and human airways. Processes such as resuspension of road dust and exhaust and non-exhaust car emission mostly affect children or babies in strollers, because the highest concentrations occur low to the ground. It would also be valuable to determine speciation of different metals in urban and motorway dusts to better understand the health risks that they pose. Further studies on the impact of traffic-related emissions on human health should also be considered. The obtained results can furthermore be used